General information

Armenia

The official name– The Republic of Armenia
The capital– Yerevan (founded in 782 BC )
The official language– Armenian
The state religion-Christianity ( the first nation in the world that adopted Chritianity as a state religion in 301 AD). The majority of the population is the followers of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Currency– dram ( since 1993)
Population- 3 249 500 ( 2010)
Area-29.740 km2

Armenia is located in the north-east of the Armenian Highland. Armenia  is bordered by Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkey. It was declared an independent republic in 1993. Armenia has rich and powerful history. According to the legend the name of the country is connected with Forefather Hayk who is considered to be the founder of the Armenian land.
Armenia is a biblical land. According to the Bible Noah’s Ark has landed on the top of Mount Ararat which is a national symbol for the Armenians.

                      

National resoures and climate
The area  of the Republic of Armenia is marked by the diversity of climatic conditions and climatic types. Sunny days generally dominate during the whole year. Summers are hot, winters are mild and plenty of snow. Wonderful time for a visit is considered to be colourful autumn and flowerful summer.

Culture
Armenia has rich and various culture. In the whole territory of Armenia one can find nearly 4.000
historiacal monuments that include different ages of the history of the country. One of the most popular forms of art is architecture.The earliest architectural structure found in Armenia is Erebuni fortress (782 BC). Centuries-old churches, monastery complexes, monuments etc are part of the Armenian architectural structures.
The Armenians are music lovers and have created exquisite songs for centuries. One of the most significant and celebrated musicians and composers of Armenia are Sayat Nova, Komitas and Aram Khatchatrian.
The Armenian literature has played an important role in the cultural and national identity of the Armenians in all times.
The Armenian Theatre has a history of more than 2.000 years. According to Greek historian Plutarch the famous tragedy  of Euripides “The Bacchae” was staged in Artashat in 53 BC. The theatre traditions are preserved up till now. One of the constituent elements of the Armenian culture is painting that flourished in the 19th century.

Cuisine
The Armenian cuisine is distinguished by wonderful combinations of flavor. According to historical sources the Armenians knew the processes of fermentation and baking processes 2500 years ago. Many traditions of the preparation of the Armenian dishes have remained unchanged up till now. One of the most delicious dishes are  the Armenian dolma which has different methods of preparation. Other dishes such as khash, barbecue ( Armenian Khorovats),  ghapama, spas etc have their special place in the Armenian cuisine.

               

Artsakh

The official name– Artsakh or the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
The capital-Stepanakert ( founded in 782 BC )
The official language– Armenian
The state religion-Christianity
The majority of the population is  the followers of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Currency– dram
Population-146.600
Area-11.458  km2

Artsakh or  the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic is  de facto constitutionally independent and autocratic country, but not recognized internationally. It is established as the second Armenian state. Nagorno-Karabakh’s independence have recongnized two other disputed states  Abkhazia and South Ossetia, as well as unrecognized republic of Transnistria. Australia’s most populous state, New South Wales, acknowledged the right of self-determination of the people of Nagorno-Karabakh and urged the Australian government to officially recognize the independence of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. The resolutions containing calls of recognition of   Nagorno-Karabakh’s independence have been adopted  (the US President and Congress)  by the legislative bodies of some US states, such as Rhode Island,  Massachusetts, Maine, Louisiana and California.
Artsakh is divided into 7 districts- Askeran, Hadrut, Martakert, Martuni, Qashatagh, Shahumyan, and Shushi.
According to southern historians the population of Artsakh  like the population of the other parts of the Armenian Highlands was formed by the merging of the primordial native tribes and ancestors. The latter were established there in the 7th century. According to historical sources Artsakh was the 15th province of the Armenian kingdom ( 189 BC).

                           

National resources and climate
Artsakh comprises one of the most difficult part of the relief of the Armenian Highland. The difference between the absolute heights of the surface reaches 3700 metres.
The largest river of Artsakh is  Tartar on which Sarsang reservoir is built. Prominent rivers of Artsakh are Khachenaget, Ishxanaget and Hakari. All the river basins of Artsakh are generally woody and picturesque. There are also many mineral resources. 35 percent of  Artsakh territory is covered by woods. The climate of the valleys is mild. The animals like dark bears, deer, lynx, chamois etc are found in Artsakh fauna.
Artsakh has moderate subtropical climate. The annual average temperature is +11 ° C. The average temperature of the hottest and the sunniest months July and August are respectively +22°C and +21°C. The average temperature of the winter months ranges between -1 to 0°C.

Culture

Artsakh is one of the ancient Caucasian civilization centers and is known for its rich cultural
heritage. More than 4000 architectural monuments such as churches, monasteries, fortifications, bridges, khachqares etc are preserved in different towns and villages of Artsakh up till now.
The cultural centre of Artsakh is considered to be Shushi where an Armenian theatre has been
opened since 1891. There are also training centers, museums, publishing houses in Shushi. The capital city Stepanakert is a small, clean and green city that can impress everyone. Walking along the city streets one can notice many monuments built by city masters. Artsakh is also known for its architectural monuments that summerizes artistic and historical values of different periods.

Cuisine
The cuisine of Artsakh has many peculiarities that is conditioned by the geographical, climatic and historical factors. It is distinguished by wonderful combinations of flavor.

Perhaps the most famous dish is bread with jengyal ( jengyalov hac) that is made from  different kinds of greens, and the process of its preparation reminds a beautiful ceremony.
Another traditional dish is kurkut which is prepared from wheat cooking it with the pork all the night .
Artsakh is also famous for its mulberry and grape vodkas, red, white and dry wines that are made from muskat and khindoxni grapes and berries.